Type of resources
Contact for the resource
Glaciers facies (ice, superimposed ice, firn) extents of Hansbreen, Storbreen and Flatbreen delivered from unsupervised classifications of single, dual and fully-polarimetric SAR data (ALOS-2 PALSAR, RADARSAT-2, Sentinel-1, ERS-2 SAR) between 2008 and 2018. Methods of classification: unsupervised ISO classification, H-a Wishart Classification. Results validated with terrestrial measurements (shallow ice cores drilling, Ground Penetrating Radar measurements). Research supported by the European Space Agency, Third Party Missions grant and Svalbard Science Forum, Arctic Field Grant 2018. For more details, please e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. Dataset of UAV vertical aerial photos of Calypsobyen obtained from height of: 100m (58 photos), 60m (45 photos) and 30m (59 photos). Used UAV: Phantom 3 Advanced, date of acqusition: 16 Aug 2016. 2. Dataset of UAV vertical aerial photos of Paierlbreen east morain/dead ice obtained from height of 50m (152 photos). Area covered: ~250x~130m (with gaps).Used UAV: Phantom 3 Advanced, date of acqusition: 22 Aug 2016. 3. Dataset of UAV vertical aerial photos of Storbreen, close to Komsa (52 photos). Area covered: ~350x~230m. Used UAV: Phantom 3 Advanced, date of acqusition: 21 Aug 2016. 4. Dataset of UAV vertical aerial photos of Werenskoildbreen's south moraine (300 photos). Area covered: ~200x~350m and ~250x~250m. Used UAV: Phantom 3 Advanced, date of acqusition: 7 Sep 2016.
Thermal structure of selected S Spitsbergen glaciers was derived from ground based radio-echo sounding (RES). The division between cold and temperate ice layers is based on indirect interpretation of GPR (ground penetrating radar) image. Cold ice layer is virtually “transparent” for radio waves, while temperate ice layer is characterised by numerous diffractions on water inclusions. The database contains results from 479.7 km of RES profiles acquired in 2007-2014 on 12 glaciers in Wedel Jarlsberg Land and Torell Land (S Spitsbergen) including: Amundsenisen, Austre Torellbreen, Vestre Torellbreen, Hansbreen, Storbreen, Hornbreen, Hambergbreen, Recherchebreen, Scottbreen, Renardbreen, Werenskioldbreen and Ariebreen. Basic characteristics of investigated glaciers and its thermal structure is provided in table 1 (supplementary information). The surveys used GPR antennas in range 25-200 MHz, selected according to expected ice depth. Thanks to that on 87% of the profiles ice/bed interface has been identified. The radar system was pulled behind the snowmobile moving with velocity c. 20 km h-1. Applying trace interval 0.2-1.0 s, trace-to-trace distance was in range 1-5m. Trace positions were acquired by GNSS receivers working in navigation or differential mode with respective accuracy 3.0 m and 0.1m. RES data were processed applying standard filtering procedure (DC-offset, time-zero adjustment, 2-D filter, amplitude correction and bandpass filtering). Time-to-depth conversion used average radio wave velocity (RWV) for glacier ice 16.4 cm ns-1, 16.7 and 16.1 for cold and temperate ice respectively, based on CMP survey. More precise description of data collection, processing and quality is provided by Grabiec (2017). In S Spitsbergen polythermal glaciers are predominant. 57.8% of surveyed profiles consist of both: temperate and cold ice layers; 22.7% profiles is entirely temperate while 6.6% contains cold ice only (remaining profiles have undefined thermal structure). Studied glaciers represent broad spectrum of polythermal structure with cold-to-temperate ice ratio from 99:1% (Ariebreen) to 2:98% (accumulation zone of Vestre Torellbreen). The data were collected and processed under following projects: • IPY/269/2006 GLACIODYN The dynamic response of Arctic glaciers to global warming • UE FP7-ENV-2008-1 ice2sea Estimating the future contribution of continental ice to sea-level rise • PNRF-22-AI-1/07 AWAKE Arctic Climate and Environment of the Nordic Seas and the Svalbard – Greenland Area • NCBiR/PolarCLIMATE-2009/2-1/2010 SvalGlac Sensitivity of Svalbard glaciers to climate change • Pol-Nor/198675/17/2013 AWAKE-2 Arctic climate system study of ocean, sea ice and glaciers interactions in Svalbard area • 03/KNOW2/2014 KNOW Leading National Research Centre Reference: Grabiec M. 2017: Stan i współczesne zmiany systemów lodowcowych południowego Spitsbergenu w świetle badań metodami radarowymi. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, 328 s.
Englacial water pressure was recorded by placing HOBO 250-Foot Depth Water Level Data Loggers in the center of Crystal Cave (N77°02' E15°34', 174 m) channel system (Hansbreen glacier). Data loggers were set to record values every 30 minutes, resampled to daily in post-processing, and have a resolution of 2.55 kPa for a typical error of 3.8 cm water level. Water pressure was converted in water level. Sensor was placed in the cave by drilling anchor points into the ice above a vertical shaft, then hanging cables down in the center of conduit. Stabilization cables were used to keep sensors from attaching to and freezing into ice walls by manually rappelling down to the sensor and attaching it to three horizontal cables, anchored into the ice walls at about 120 degrees apart. Senor was installed in Crystal Cave at about 100 m total distance from the cave entrance, in ice about 74 m thick. The sensor was installed 28 m above the glacier bed and 46 m below the ice surface.
Results of supervised classification of six Landsat 8 images acquired on: 25 May, 3 June, 22 June, 15 July, 4 August and 20 August 2014, covering glaciers in Hornsund fiord. Method of classification: Maximum Likelihood. The results show variability of snow cover areas in melting period of 2014 for glaciers located in Hornsund fiord and larger than 9 km2 (Körberbreen, Samarinbreen, Chomjakovbreen, Mendelejevbreen, Svalisbreen, Hornbreen, Storbreen, Kvalfangarbreen, Mühlbacherbreen, Paierlbreen and Hansbreen). For more information, please check: https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100804 Overview: Results of Maximum Likelihood classification of Landsat 8 images for analysed glaciers. Red - snow cover, yellow - glacier ice, black - debirs, grey - cloud cover.
Precipitation measurements were made at AWS at Polish olar Station Hornsund (N77°00' E15°33') with a multi-type gauge that measured both solid and liquid. Results were into liquid water equivalent in millimeters. Precipitation measurements are slightly offset temporally, with a day defined as beginning at 6 a.m. on the observed day and ending 6 a.m. on the day after.
The monitoring of the mass balance of the Werenskioldbreen (Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen, Svalbard) in the years 1999-2002 and 2009-2018. It is calculated on the base of 4 to 9 ablation stakes (depend on year). The mass balance is determined by conducting field surveys on floating calendar dates (floating-date system). Data have also been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Sevice (WGMS, https://wgms.ch)
Air temperature is provided by AWS 4 (N77°02' E15°38', 183 m). Air temperature comes from a Campbell Scientific 107 sensor at +/- 0.1° C resolution and sampled every 10 minutes, averaged to daily resolution in post-processing.
Radar satellite (SAR) images for Hornsund: ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ALOS Palsar, TerraSAR-X, TandemX-1, acquired between 1992 and 2014. 210 archival SAR data were provided at the SLC level, so that both radiometric and geometric corrections were applied using the same methods, and with the same digital elevation model (2008 DEM SPOT developed by the IPY-SPIRIT Project; Korona et al., 2009). The SAR data were processed in BEAM (http://www.brockmann-consult.de/cms/web/beam).
Subglacial topography was derived from radio-echo sounding (RES) survey conducted in spring 2008 by the University of Silesia research team (M. Grabiec and J. Jania) in cooperation with the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (D. Puczko) and the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (G.Gajek). The profiles were acquired by the radar system equipped with 25 MHz unshielded antenna pulled behind snowmobile. Traces were recorded every 0.5 s, that translates into 1.5-2.0 trace-to-trace distance depending on the vehicle’s velocity. Traces were positioned by GNSS receiver working in differential mode with 3D accuracy ± 1m. In total over 100 km of RES profiles were acquired on Hansbreen, 66 km on Werenskioldbreen and 43 km on Renardbreen. RES data were processed using standard procedure including: DC-offset, time-zero adjustment, 2-D filter, amplitude correction, bandpass filtering and migration. Time-to-depth conversion applied average radio-wave velocity in glacier ice 16.4 cm ns-1 calculated based on CMP analysis performed on Hansbreen in the same season as the GPR profiling. The ice/bed interface was picked up semi-automatically with RMSE 5.3 ns (0.43 m) (Grabiec, 2017). Then the bedrock elevation data were interpolated over studied glaciers taking into account elevation of nonglaciated surroundings (Grabiec 2017) and bathymetry at the front of tidewater Hansbreen (Grabiec et al. 2012). Finally produced 100 m resolution DEMs are in UTM 33X WGS84 reference system. DEM of 300 m resolution is freely available. For 100 m resolution DEM please contact: email@example.com. The data were collected and processed under following projects: • IPY/269/2006 GLACIODYN The dynamic response of Arctic glaciers to global warming • UE FP7-ENV-2008-1 ice2sea Estimating the future contribution of continental ice to sea-level rise • PNRF-22-AI-1/07 AWAKE Arctic Climate and Environment of the Nordic Seas and the Svalbard – Greenland Area • 03/KNOW2/2014 KNOW Leading National Research Centre Reference: Grabiec M., Jania J., Puczko D., Kolondra L., and Budzik T., 2012: Surface and bed morphology of Hansbreen, a tidewater glacier in Spitsbergen. Polish Polar Research 38(2): 111-138. Grabiec M. 2017: Stan i współczesne zmiany systemów lodowcowych południowego Spitsbergenu w świetle badań metodami radarowymi. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, 328 s. Decaux, L., Grabiec, M., Ignatiuk, D., and Jania, J. 2018: Role of discrete recharge from the supraglacial drainage system for modelling of subglacial conduits pattern of Svalbard polythermal glaciers, The Cryosphere Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2017-219, in review.