Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway
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Bathymetry at the front of tidewater glaciers derived from different sources. Bathymetry data in Hansbukta and Burgerbukta have been collected by the Norwegian Hydrographic Service using a multi-beam survey during 2007–2008. Later measurements in Hansbukta were collected with single beam profiling at the Hansbreen front in 2015. Data format: grid (6m), UTM 33X. Single echo-sounding data collected during summer 2011, by the University of Silesia.
Snow depth data series contain records obtained by high frequency GPR on selected glaciers of Hornsund area (S Svalbard) since 2008. Currently the largest collection regards Hansbreen. Data for other glaciers are successively appended. The GPR survey on Hansbreen is regularly carried out approximately along the same tracks. Due to dynamically changing glacier surface topography influencing different survey abilities the some parts of profiles are modified in consecutive seasons. The total distance of Hansbreen profiles are as follows (Fig.1): 63.9 km (2008), 117,5 km (2011), 105,1 km (2013), 103,9 km (2014), 98,5 km (2015), 91,1 km (2016), 101,0 km (2017) and 108,4 km (2018).
Inventory of tidewater glaciers delineated from archival satellite images (Aster, Landsat) acquired in the period 1999-2006. Shapefiles have basic information in the attribute table (name, ID, area, length, front type of tidewater glaciers). When a tidewater glacier has a compound basin, only that part of it feeding the calving front was taken into consideration and presented here as the tidewater glacier. This implies that tributary glaciers clearly separated from the main basin by moraines are not included in the database. Similarly, marginal sections of tidewater glaciers that terminate on land are not included in the Inventory. Detailed description of the source data and accuracy can be found in: Błaszczyk M., Jania J., Hagen J.O. 2009: Tidewater glaciers of Svalbard: Recent changes and estimates of calving fluxes. Polish Polar Research, 30(2): 85-142. http://www.polish.polar.pan.pl/ppr30/PPR30-085.pdf
Glacier velocities are derived from the displacements of stakes installed close to the front of Hansbreen. Measurements of stakes position were conducted in 2008-2009, 2010-2011, 2013-2014 and 2015, with precise dGPS receiver (Leica 1230, accuracy ±5cm) and with time intervals from 3 hours to a few days.
Ice front position of the tidewater glaciers in Hornsund was examined during the following periods: 1899–1936–1960/1961–1976–1990–2001–2005–2010. For the period 1899–1990, several archival maps of varying accuracy were used, sometimes difficult to assess. For the period 1976–2010 multispectral and radar satellite images were used. Detailed description of the source data and accuracy can be found in: Błaszczyk M., Jania J.A., Kolondra L., 2013: Fluctuations of tidewater glaciers in Hornsund Fiord (Southern Svalbard) since the beginning of the 20th century. Polish Polar Research, 34(4): 327-352.
Glacier velocities are derived from the displacements of four stakes (Z, R, T, U) installed close to the front of three glaciers in Hornsund. Measurements of stakes position were conducted in 2013-2015, with precise dGPS receiver (Leica 1230, accuracy ±5cm) and single-frequency GPS receiver (Garmin, accuracy ±5m). Detailed description of the source data and accuracy can be found in: Błaszczyk M., Ignatiuk D., Uszczyk A., Cielecka-Nowak K., Grabiec M., Jania J., Moskalik M., Walczowski W., 2019. Freshwater input to the Arctic fjord Hornsund (Svalbard). Polar Research, 38. https://doi.org/10.33265/polar.v38.3506